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● Pneumonia vaccine (pneumococcal vaccine):
Pneumococcal diseases are caused by a group of serious infections caused by S. pneumonia. More than 1 million deaths occur each year in children under 5 years of age due to pneumonia caused by these bacteria. It can also cause serious sequelae (undesirable effects after illness) in living patients. In addition, diseases such as meningitis, sinusitis, otitis media and sepsis which may result in death may develop due to the same bacteria. With vaccination, such diseases have been reduced by 60-70%.
The vaccine is administered in 4, 4, 4, 6 and 12-15 months. First dose vaccination 7-11. 3 months if done between 12 months, 2 doses if done in 12-23. months and 24 months after (up to 9 years) is done in a single dose.
Swelling at the injection site, fever, restlessness and drowsiness at 38 ºC and above are the most common side effects.
● Diarrhea vaccine (Rotavirus vaccine):
Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age. 80-90% of diarrhea is caused by viruses. Rotaviruses are the most common viral diarrhea. Rotaviruses can be found everywhere and 95% of children between the ages of 3 and 5 are infected worldwide. Unlike many other microbial diseases, it causes diarrhea with severe fluid loss, high fever and intense vomiting in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. In addition, hygiene status, development of health services and clean water resources cannot prevent transmission. It can rapidly lead to outbreaks in the home and community.
Since the beginning of the 1970s, vaccination studies have started and previously licensed vaccines have been removed due to serious side effects. In recent years, two new vaccines have been licensed and started to be given both in Turkey and abroad. Vaccines have reduced both the infection and hospitalization due to diarrhea by 70% and have provided 100% protection against severe infections.
The vaccine can be administered orally in 2 or 3 doses (the number of doses varies according to the companies) and the first dose can be given at intervals of 1-2 months, not later than 8-12 weeks. Vaccination should be completed at the latest when the baby is 7-8 months old. The most common side effects after vaccination are fever, vomiting and mild diarrhea.
● Hepatitis A vaccine:
Almost all children in developing countries are exposed to hepatitis A virus by the age of 5 years. The disease is usually asymptomatic and unnoticed. In addition, the tendency to become chronic like Hepatitis B is as low as 1%. However, fulminant hepatitis, a rare form, is quite fatal. This form occurs more frequently in adult patients and is more lethal. The incidence of the disease was considerably reduced with the improvement of hygiene conditions.
Hepatitis A vaccine can be given to healthy children on request as well as risky children from the age of 1-2. It is administered intramuscularly in 2 doses at 6-month intervals. No significant side effects: Rarely, pain and swelling and weakness may occur at the vaccination site.
● Flu Vaccine:
As the subtypes of the influenza virus change each year, vaccination should be repeated every year. Every year for children over 6 months with specific risk factors (asthma, heart disease, sickle cell anemia, HIV infection, diabetes, and those with recurrent lung disease, health workers and people at high risk) Can be made to any child over 6 months. Not recommended for those who are allergic to eggs and chicken meat. For the first time under 9 years of age, two doses should be administered at intervals of 1 month to ensure adequate antibody response. If under 3 years of age is recommended to do half a dose.
It is administered intramuscularly and as a side effect, swelling, redness tenderness and rarely weakness, fever and muscle pain may occur at the vaccination site.
● HPV vaccine
It is a new vaccine which was put into use in 2007 in our country. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are the most common cause of cervical cancer, one of the most common genital cancers, especially in older women. Vaccination provides 100% protection against this virus. It is currently recommended in 3 doses for girls aged 9 to 26 years. The second dose is administered 2 months after the first dose and the third dose is administered intramuscularly after 4 months.
3) Vaccination schedule
In our country, vaccination is performed free of charge by the Ministry of Health in health centers according to the table below. Since 2008, the combination vaccine, polio vaccine and meningitis vaccine is planned to be given as a single dose of five vaccines.
The detailed vaccination schedule, which includes vaccines that have not yet been routinely implemented by the Ministry, is given below in private centers in other countries and in our country.
Dr. View Ramazan's Full Profile
Acıbadem Bursa Hospital
Child Health and Diseases Specialist